Friday, July 3, 2020

Factors In A Business Indicate The Need For Simulation - 1375 Words

Factors In A Business Indicate The Need For Simulation (Coursework Sample) Content: SIMULATION IN BUSINESSSTUDENTS NAMETUTORS NAMECOURSE TITLEINSTITUTION NAMEDATE * Need for SimulationSimulation is a very essential factor that many businesses need to employ in their systems. Well-designed simulation models are a great help to generating consensus and generating confidence in the design that you create for the business. It helps foresee what lies ahead if you implement a certain model. Many systems have proved to have various properties that call for the need for simulation. Some of these properties are: * High levels of complexity * High variation in demand * Multiple interdependencies * Severe competition and rationing of resourcesSimulation takes a realistic world into a computer and gives an insight on what needs to be done. Computerized simulation provides visual view of the likely consequences when a certain scenario is implemented by doing complex processing and making interdependent decisions. Users are able to gain great insight and understan ding of the problem at hand gained from the design, execution of the scenarios and a deep analysis of the outcomes. Simulation can help with finding optimal solutions which gives a high level of confidence. There are many benefits associated with a business employing simulation modeling such as: 1 Your thoughts are distilled. You can clearly articulate the problem. 2 You are able to see the dynamics of your model and gain new insight. 3 You are able to document the required process improvements. 4 The business is able to develop strategies, management plans and actions. 5 The business is able to eliminate any duplicity, flaws and gaps in the systems. 6 Helps examine strategies choicesRef: Ringberg, H., Roughan, M., Rexford, J. (2008). The need for simulation in evaluating anomaly detectors. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review, 38(1), 55-59. * Monte Carlo simulationMonte Carlo simulation was invented by scientists who were working on an atomic bomb (1940s). They named this sim ulation model while working in Monaco city known for its casino games. It uses random parameter/input samples to explore and learn the behavior exhibited by a complex process or systems. The scientists came up with Monte Carlo method to solve physics problems which were complex due to exhaustive numerical evaluations. Monte Carlo proved effective in finding solutions easily and fast. It is used in exploring sensitivity in complex systems such as financial, mathematical and physical models which are stimulated in a loop where statistical uncertainties are included.Why the name? They named this model as Monte Carlo, a casino in Monaco city where the scientists frequently met. They based this on the chance and random outcomes in the casino games and centralized the modeling technique on the two, just like dice, roulette and slot machines. The Monte Carlo simulation can be used in stochastic modeling, integration, and uniform distribution models. Tasks that can be performed under Monte Carlo analysis include; * Analysis of data through advanced statistical methods and robust plotting. * Creating dynamic simulation.REF: * Mahadevan, S. (1997). Monte carlo simulation. MECHANICAL ENGINEERING-NEW YORK AND BASEL-MARCEL DEKKER-, 123-146. * Vose, D. (1996). Quantitative risk analysis: a guide to Monte Carlo simulation modelling. * Difference between simulation and modelingSimulation and modeling are closely related computer applications with a major role in engineering and science in the current world. Modeling involves creating of a model acting as a representative of a system or an object with all its properties. Simulation on the other hand is a technique used to study and analyse the real world or an imaginary world by mimicking the same on computer application.A model helps the user in predicting how changes in a system are affecting other operations or parts of a system. Simulation helps in system optimization allowing one to prevent failure by adjusting the system s parameters. A model is considered to be static while simulation is dynamic since the variables are easy to change. A simulation changes one or more variables in a model and observes the changes. This is only one way modeling cannot change the variables in simulation.A simulation tries to observe all the possibilities in results by even doing impossible changes. A model will always represent the real world.A model is a systemic recipe trying to show how to produce a modeled systems behavior data while a simulation takes the recipe and carries it out. This produces the behavior of the modeled system.REF: H. (2011). Difference Between Modelling and Simulation. Retrieved October 04, 2016, from /difference-between-modelling-and-vs-simulation/ * Justification of SimulationIn the modern world of powerful computers, it often beats logic to use pen and paper. Software developed can perform calculations in a blink of an eye than it takes to use the hand. Simulation finds its justification i n the same way by being placed at an upper hand by what it can do. 1 Accurate depiction of realitySimple analysis can be done manually by anyone. However, increasing complexity in analysis calls for sound measure such as computer based tools. Simulation is used to help in determining the operational status of a system. Using simulation, one is able to include randomness by properly identifying probability distributions extracted direct from study data. Simulation allows interdependence through service events, and also by keeping t...

Tuesday, May 26, 2020

Mercalli Earthquake Intensity Scale

The Modified Mercalli Intensity Scale of 1931 is the basis for the U.S. evaluation of seismic intensity. Intensity is different than the  magnitude in that it is based on observations of the effects and damage of an earthquake, not on scientific  measurements. This means that an earthquake may have different intensities from place to place, but it will only have one magnitude. In simplified terms,  magnitude measures how big  an earthquake is while intensity measures how bad  it is. The Mercalli Scale The Mercalli scale has 12 divisions, using Roman numerals from I to XII. I. Not felt except by a very few under especially favorable circumstances.II. Felt only by a few persons at rest, especially on upper floors of buildings. Delicately suspended objects may swing.III. Felt quite noticeably indoors, especially on upper floors of buildings, but many people do not recognize it as an earthquake. Standing motorcars may rock slightly. Vibration like passing truck. Duration estimated.IV. During the day felt indoors by many, outdoors by few. At night some awakened. Dishes, windows, and doors disturbed; walls make a creaking sound. Sensation like heavy truck striking building. Standing motorcars rock noticeably.V. Felt by nearly everyone; many awakened. Some dishes, windows, etc., broken; a few instances of cracked plaster; unstable objects overturned. Disturbance of trees, poles, and other tall objects sometimes noticed. Pendulum clocks may stop.VI. Felt by all; many frightened and run outdoors. Some heavy furniture moved; a few instances of fallen plaster or damaged chimneys. Damage slight.VII. Everybody runs outdoors. Damage negligible in buildings of good design and construction slight to moderate in well built ordinary structures; considerable in poorly built or badly designed structures. Some chimneys broken. Noticed by persons driving motor cars.VIII. Damage slight in specially designed structures; considerable in ordinary substantial buildings, with partial collapse; great in poorly built structures. Panel walls thrown out of frame structures. Fall of chimneys, factory stacks, columns, monuments, walls. Heavy furniture overturned. Sand and mud ejected in small amounts. Changes in well water. Persons driving motor cars disturbed.IX. Damage considerable in specially designed structures; well-designed frame structures thrown out of plumb; great in substantial buildings, with partial collapse. Buildings shifted off foundations. The ground cracked conspicuously. Underground pipes broken.X. Some well-built wooden structures destroyed; m ost masonry and frame structures destroyed with foundations; ground badly cracked. Rails bent. Landslides considerable from river banks and steep slopes. Shifted sand and mud. Water splashed over banks.XI. Few, if any (masonry), structures remain standing. Bridges destroyed. Broad fissures in ground. Underground pipelines completely out of service. Earth slumps and landslips in soft ground. Rails bent greatly.XII. Damage total. Waves seen on ground surfaces. Lines of sight and level distorted. Objects ​thrown upward into the air. From Harry O. Wood and Frank Neumann, in Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, vol. 21, no. 4, December 1931. Although the correlation between magnitude and intensity is weak, the USGS has made a pretty good estimate of the intensity that might be felt near the epicenter of an earthquake of a specific magnitude. It is important to reiterate that these relationships are by no means precise: Magnitude Typical Mercalli Intensity Felt Near Epicenter 1.0 - 3.0 I 3.0 - 3.9 II - III 4.0 - 4.9 IV - V 5.0 - 5.9 VI - VII 6.0 - 6.9 VII - IX 7.0 and greater VIII and greater

Tuesday, May 19, 2020

Bone And Joint Health And How It Effects The Elderly...

Osteoporosis is defined by the World Health Organization as â€Å"a systemic skeletal disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitecture deterioration of bone tissue with consequential increase in bone fragility and susceptibility to fracture† This condition is a result of an imbalance in the normal processes of â€Å" bone formation† and â€Å"bone reabsorption† which work together to maintain bone strength.† (Leyland, S. 2013) The purpose of this paper is to educate the reader about bone and joint health and how it effects the elderly population. The topic of this paper is osteoporosis. Issue and Significance to Healthy Aging According to Mayo Clinic signs and symptoms are not evident in the early stages of the disease but when bone loss has occurred can include back pain caused by fractures or collapsed vertebra, loss of height over time, a stooped posture, and a bone fracture that occurs much more easily than expected. Older adults risk is also increased due to other age-related factors such as â€Å"poor balance, poor body mechanics, and gait disturbances.† (Davis, G., White, T., Yang, A., 2006). The risk for osteoporosis is increased if individuals have gone through early menopause, have been on corticosteroids for several months at a time or if either of their parents have had hip fractures. (Mayo Clinic Staff, 2014) Osteoporosis can be affected by how much bone mass has been obtained in youth, as it peaks during early 20’s, thus the more bone mass acquired at an early age,Show MoreRelatedThe Effect Of Physiological Changes On Children Essay1531 Words   |  7 Pagesthe term older adu lt will be referring to individuals chronologically aged 65 and older. The impacts of physiological changes can be drastic on an older adult, however it is important to note no two people age the same and it is critical to view elderly as individuals. This paper will allow the reader to gain insight into the age related physiological changes which impact an older persons mobility, the underlying diseases which impact mobility, as well as the potential consequences of impaired mobilityRead MoreRheumatoid Arthritis : An Autoimmune Etiology1521 Words   |  7 PagesIntroduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) can be a serious joint and muscle condition that hinders the quality of life of anyone who acquires this disease. There’s many things to consider in order to understand this disease. Some of those topics include autoimmune etiology, RA vs osteoporosis, genetics and environmental factors, assessments, who’s at risk, treatment, physical activity, prevention, and showing you how RA can affect oral health. There’s no known prevention for RA, the sooner you seekRead MoreWhat Are The Three Major Health Issues And Challenges?1511 Words   |  7 Pagespaper. The three main health issues/challenges that will be highlighted are: arthritis, falling, and medication use. These topics will be covered due to how commonly they occur in the older population. When discussing arthritis, it will be involving any joint disease that brings pain and discomfort to the person. The topic of falling will account for falls that the elderly experience that in tur n affect them long after the fall occurs. Lastly, medication use will look at the effects of medication useRead MoreNutrition For Kids : Nutrition1704 Words   |  7 Pagescombinations. Knowing about nutrition and making smart choices about the foods you eat can help you achieve good health. Good health avoids obesity and a great number of illnesses. Nutrition for Kids Nutrition is very important for everyone, but especially for kids. Nutrition is directly linked to all aspects of their growth and development. It is the base of their level of health as they grow into adults. â€Å"A child with the right balance of omega fatty acids in their daily diet has a much betterRead MoreAging : A Normal Biological And Physical Process1196 Words   |  5 Pagesincludes encouraging having more frequent eye exam, additional eye assessment, and providing access to eyeglass as needed. Another system affected by aging is cardiovascular system. Musculoskeletal system also gets affected by aging. Muscle weakness and bone loss increases risk for fall and fractures as an end result. Nursing intervention should include assess for injures often, educate on safety, remove obstacles like rugs and cords from their environment. Some of the recommendations to decrease someRead MoreHealth Is A Resource For Everyday Life Essay1316 Words   |  6 PagesïÆ' » What is health? The World Health Organization at first defined health as the complete state of physical, mental, and social well-being and not merely the absence of infirmity but then it reviewed the concept of health and changed it to the definition of the extent to which an individual or group is able to realize aspirations and satisfy needs, and to change or cope with the environment. Health is a resource for everyday life, not the objective of living; it is a positive concept, emphasizingRead MoreThe Components Of Aerobic Power3835 Words   |  16 PagesExercise in general has been known to reep many benefits in health of the body, for example the seven components of fitness as mentioned in ‘ABC of sports and exercise medicine, third edition by Sir Roger Bannister’. (Edited by Gregory P Whyte) These components include aerobic power, which can be typically described as VO2 max, this is the maximal amount of oxygen the body can take in and use efficiently. The amount of oxygen taken in can be influenced greatly by the cardiovascular systems abilityRead MoreThe Effects Of Elderly On The Elderly2195 Words   |  9 Pagesfalls-related injuries per day. Falls in the elderly population are such a serious problem that in 2002, the United States Senate Subcommittee on Aging held a hearing to talk about the effects of elderly falls in the community and potential legislation to mitigate those falls (Preventing Elder Falls, 2002). While some of these falls might result in minor or no injuries, many of them result in hospitalization and even death. In an age when artificial joints are becoming commonplace and the average lifespanRead MoreVitamin Deficiency : A Widespread Problem All Around The World1457 Words   |  6 Pagesit is so important to have a healthy balanced diet, so that our body gets the sufficient amount of nutrients needed to function properly. Some effects of vitamin deficiency are digestion, skin problems, defective bone growth, and even dementia. It isvery necessary to take fast action against these deficiencies as these could lead to chronic long-term health problems such as rickets, iron deficiency anemia, goiter, obesity, coronary heart disease, type 2 diabetes, stroke, cancer and osteoporosis. Read MoreAging And The Healthcare System3038 Words   |  13 Pagesstudies about aging without our subjective presuppositions. Physical and Physiological Changes of Aging As people aged, there is a high chance of experiencing different physical changes, which may include, decrease in skin elasticity, bones and muscle become more weaken, joint become stiffer, lose of teeth, lose of hair and appearance change. Cognitive and psychological changes, such as memory and emotional disorder, respectively, can also occur. Level of functionality can be disrupted due to those changes

Friday, May 15, 2020

The Most Abundant Protein

Have you ever wondered what the most abundant protein is? The answer depends on whether you want to know the most common protein in the world, in your body or in a cell. Protein Basics A protein is a polypeptide, a molecular chain of amino acids. Polypeptides are, indeed, the building blocks of your body. And, the most abundant protein in your body is collagen. However, the worlds most abundant protein is RuBisCO, an enzyme that catalyzes the first step in carbon fixation. Most Abundant on Earth RuBisCO, whose full scientific name is ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, according to, is found in plants, algae, cyanobacteria, and certain other bacteria. Carbon fixation is the main chemical reaction responsible for inorganic carbon entering the biosphere. In plants, this is part of photosynthesis, in which carbon dioxide is made into glucose, notes Since every plant uses RuBisCO, it is the most plentiful protein on earth with nearly 90 million pounds produced every second, says, adding that it has four forms: Form I, the most common type is found in plants, algae, and some bacteria.Form II is found in different types of bacteria.Form III is found in some archaea.Form IV is found in some bacteria and archaea. Slow Acting Surprisingly, each individual RuBisCO is not all that efficient, notes PBD-101. The website, whose full name is Protein Data Bank, is coordinated by Rutgers University, the University of California, San Diego, and San Diego State University as a study guide for college students. As enzymes go, it is painfully slow, says PBD-101.  Typical enzymes can process a thousand molecules per second, but RuBisCO fixes only about three carbon dioxide molecules per second. Plant cells compensate for this slow rate by building lots of the enzyme. Chloroplasts are filled with RuBisCO, which comprises half of the protein. This makes RuBisCO the most plentiful single enzyme on the Earth. In the Human Body Around 25 percent to 35 percent of protein in your body is collagen. It is the most common protein in other mammals, too. Collagen forms connective tissue. It is found primarily in fibrous tissue, such as tendons, ligaments, and skin. Collagen is a component of muscle, cartilage, bone, blood vessels, the cornea of your eye, intervertebral discs, and your intestinal tract. Its a little harder to name a single protein as the most common in cells because the composition of cells depends on their function: Actin is a very common protein that is found in all eukaryotic cells.Tubulin is another important and abundant protein used in cellular division among other purposes.Histones, associated with DNA, are present in all cells.Ribosomal proteins are abundant since they are needed to produce other proteins.Red blood cells contain high concentrations of the protein hemoglobin, while muscle cells contain a high level of the protein myosin.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Essay on The Impact of the Remittances in Latin America

Introduction In Latin America migration and remittances have become structural features in the economy, the society, and in the political environment; due to the underdevelopment and inequality of the region. Because they relative importance, trends in migration and the impact of remittances in population of Latin America are the main topics that we will analyze in this research focusing on reduction of poverty and inequality. This research will aim to answer the next: Do remittances finance development in the region? Do they contribute to reduce poverty? Do they increase the inequality or help to reduce it? Do remittances are used only for consumption or they promote investment in a positive way? In order to reach the objective†¦show more content†¦Finally, we will present some general conclusions. Literature Overview The framework related to the impact of remittances can be classified in macroeconomic and microeconomic according to several recent researches. Even though there is a general consensus that remittances are positive for the economic development, some authors claim they might have negative effects (Barajas et al., 2009; Bettin and Zazzaro, 2008; Chami, Fullenkamp and Jahjahha, 2005). When talking about their impact, some countries in which the remittances constitute a huge source of the national income we can appreciate the macroeconomic effects of the remittances in the economic growth. Some aggregate analyses of the relationship between remittances and economic growth have found a positive correlation between these two variables (Faini, 2007; World Bank, 2006a; Fullenkamp, Gapen, and Montiel, 2009). Some other studies have proven that the remittances affect the economic growth in the sense that there are foreign savings, and they interact with the structure of the local economy if their use is productive (Fullenkamp, Gapen, and Montiel, 2009). It has been demonstrated that remittances respond to macroeconomic fluctuations, in particular to the inflation, showing countercyclical trends, due toShow MoreRelatedThe Country Of Nicaragua And The Center Of Central America1063 Words   |  5 PagesThe country of Nicaragua, located in the center of Central America, is one the poorest nations in Latin America. Nicaragua’s citizens are primarily mestizo who account for almost 70% of the population. With a population of nearly six million, 58.8% of Nicaraguans live in urban areas, with nearly 2% of citizens migrating from rural areas to the cities in search of jobs and better welfare. However, internal migration to rural areas also exist seasonally for agricultural labor. Due to the current economicRead MoreThe Global Financial Crisis Of The Usa1383 Words   |  6 PagesBrazil and South Africa to the countries of South Asia and Latin America. Asian countries were more affected by a strong recession in the USA Bangladesh Bangladesh is a developing country and globalization integrates it with the global market in diverse areas. Bangladesh is equally affected by this global turmoil in the short run as well as in The long run. It is very difficult to predict the scenario in the long term; however, short term impact should duly be taken into consideration. The global financialRead MoreMigration from developing countries to developed countries should be stopped. Discuss2070 Words   |  9 Pageswas PhDs (Newland, 2003). Therefore, if losing highly skilled people continues, impact of brain drain from migration to developing countries is enormous. The is no denying the fact that developing countries have lost many highly skilled people due to migration but they also got benefits from its. Firstly, developing countries received a lot of remittances from migrants. In 2010, according to the Factbook’s, remittances from migrants sending back to developing countries increased from $307 billionRead MoreLatin American International Locations Aren t Resistant The Global Disaster1352 Words   |  6 PagesLatin American international locations aren t resistant to the global disaster. It hit this place as it was emerging from one of the maximum severe periods of expansion in current many years. according to ECLAC figures, local GDP grew an annual common of five% among 2003 and 2008. that is a median growth of greater than three% consistent with capita, a figure that had no longer been carried out because the days of the import substitution model (ECLAC, 2008, p. 13). a few countries like ArgentinaRead MoreMigration, Remittances, Inequality and Poverty the Philippines10368 Words   |  42 PagesMigration, Remittances, Poverty and Inequality The Philippines By Ernesto M. Pernia The paper looks into the effects of international migration and remittances on household incomes and well-being, poverty reduction, human capital investment, saving, and regional development in the home country. Remittances appear to raise average incomes for all income groups but more so for the richer households than for the poorer ones, a finding that is consistent with that in several Latin American countriesRead More Impact of Foreign Remittances on Economic Growth and Poverty Reduction in Pakistan2389 Words   |  10 PagesINTRODUCTION: Remittances typically refer to transfers of money by foreign workers to their home countries. Remittances are not a new phenomenon in the world, being a normal associated to migration which has always been a part of human history. Remittances are playing an important role in the economies of many developing and low income countries. 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The Bracero Program represents how the vision of coming to America in search of a new life became an appealing idea to the people who had few resources and didn’t have a stable economic position. Since then, immigrants that find themselves in that economic situation tend to look for the American Dream. Of course immigrants have been coming to America for long before the program, but since it happened, immigrants have a more clear idea and a much biggerRead More The Problems of Illegal Immigration Essay example1548 Words   |  7 Pagesthere is discrimination in America when it comes to immigration.   The type of immigration that I am referring to is that of illegal immigration into the United States from the southern borders.   The people coming here illegally or those that have overstayed passed their stipulated time issued by their visas are the ones who are facing this problem head on.   They are coming originally from different countries, such as Mexico, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and other Latin American countries.   In theRead MoreMajor League Baseball Helping Developing Countries3070 Words   |  13 Pagesschools, but also from all over Latin America. Major League Baseball has established itself in Latin America as a premiere way for these young kids who are looking for a way out of their developing nation to find success in the American dream. While the MLB focuses much time and effort all over Latin America, this paper will foc us primarily on how Major League Baseball helps developing nations specifically the case of the Dominican Republic. Following World War 2, the Latin sporting experience has been

Hicks And The Is Lm Curve - 1298 Words

Dan Hill AAEC 8210 December 1st, 2015 Hicks and the IS-LM Curve While J.R. Hicks received the Nobel Prize for many of his accomplishments in both macroeconomic and microeconomic research, his development of what he then called the SI-LL model, but is now more famously known as the IS-LM model, was one of his greatest feats. The IS-LM model was Hicks’ reduction of aggregate demand analysis done by John Maynard Keynes in his book titled The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money published in 1936. The model’s purpose was to explain investor decisions dependent on money availability and interest rates in the goods and services market and assets market. The IS-LM model now plays an integral role in both general macroeconomic understanding and policy analysis. IS-LM stands for investment-savings and liquidity-money, and can be represented graphically by a downward sloping curve for IS and an upward sloping curve for LM. In the IS curve, anywhere along the curve represents a point where interest rate a nd income satisfy that total spending equals the economy’s total output (real income). Total spending/demand is determined by adding together consumer expenditure, investment, government expenditure, and net exports (investment being the only endogenous variable among the four). In this equation, the assumptions are that; consumer spending is increasing with more disposable income, investment is increasing as interest rates increase, and exports are increasing withShow MoreRelatedIs Lm Model On Economics Of The Twentieth Century?1037 Words   |  5 PagesIS-LM Model Mr. Keynes and the â€Å"Classics†; A Suggested Interpretation is a classic journal written by John R. Hicks, who has left huge impact on Economics of the twentieth century. John Hicks introduced the beginning of â€Å"IS-LM economic model†, which set up basic system of Macroeconomics to the world through this journal. This journal could be considered as an attempt to interpret and reassess Mr. Keynes’ General Theory of Empoyment within the typical â€Å"classic† theory framework and compare Keynes’Read MoreIS, LM model and explanations(in the form of an essay).1350 Words   |  6 Pagesof the IS-LM model took several directions. Probably, the most prominent ideas on that theory were expressed in the work of John Hicks called Mr. Keynes and the Classics. The model expressed in the article was largely based on the works of John Maynard Keynes and became a widely accepted as the alternative framework to standard Keynesian analysis. The IS-LM model is a way of modelling equilibrium in the economy by looking at equilibrium in the goods and services markets (the IS curve) and equilibriumRead MoreTheoretical Analysis of News Article A Working Model: Is the World Experiencing Excess Saving or Excess Liquidity?540 Words   |  3 Pagespurpose of this article is to present the understanding of IS-LM model in macroeconomics by these are the convergence of two economic graphs, one representing the income and savings (IS0 and other liquidity and money (LM). Article Summary In this article, author defines the so-called IS-LM framework aggregate macroeconomic model that has the intuition use to describe money and markets. The author has also focused on the role of IS-LM model and its relation with the interest rate, short-term ratesRead MoreNeoclassical Theory Of Keynesian Theory1578 Words   |  7 Pagessituation in the long run is the defining Neoclassical feature. The paper will first examine the Neoclassical elements in the synthesis school of thought, with reference to its defining IS/LM model, the Phillips Curve and the Solow-Swan Growth model. The UK Cambridge Keynesian school rejects Hicks and Hansens’ IS/LM model, and instead utilises proportionately more Keynesian ideas in its body of theories – including a rejection of the Neoclassical tenet that it is that interest rate that equalises savingsRead MoreThree Pane Model1553 Words   |  7 Pagesanalysis to make rational judgments about the effects of global events or policy shock s on the economy and thereby on the business environment. But such analysis is often laden with possibilities for logical missteps. The Three- Pane model (open economy IS/LM model) is discussed here as a tool for explaining key relationships in the economy while avoiding the missteps encountered in macroeconomic analysis. What is open economy macroeconomics? Macroeconomic analysis helps firms to explore the interrelationshipsRead MoreINTRODUCTION: Keynesian framework IS-LM Model According to Dornbusch (2011), the IS-LM model was1100 Words   |  5 PagesINTRODUCTION: Keynesian framework IS-LM Model According to Dornbusch (2011), the IS-LM model was invented by Hicks in 1937. IS stands for investments and savings in the goods market while LM stands for liquidity preference and money supply in the money market. The model emphasizes the interaction between the goods and assets markets. Spending, interest rates and income are determined jointly by equilibrium in the goods and assets markets. The IS curve shows various combinations of interest ratesRead MoreScience Of Economics By Neuroscientist Marco Iacaboni1074 Words   |  5 PagesShiller and Akerlof. The IS-LM model is such a model of macroeconomic reasoning and illustrates their influence on large-scale group decisions. Developed by John Hicks in the wake of the Great Depression, the IS-LM model describes how interests rates interact with money supply to affect an economy’s aggregate output. The IS-LM model showcases the macro-responses of an economy to various fundamental shifts. Take the case of an increase in aggregate investment. The IS-LM suggests that any increase toRead MoreReview of John Hicks Article a Suggested Interpretation of Keynes3840 Words   |  16 PagesA Review of Mr. Keynes and the â€Å"Classics†; A Suggested Interpretation By J. R. Hicks Word count: 2,932, (excluding mathematical equations) We aim to examine the British economist Sir John Hick’s article ‘Mr Keynes and the â€Å"classics†; A suggested interpretation (April 1937)’ in which Hicks seeks to devise a simpler more cruder ‘classical’ model of the imperial, however complicated work of Professor Pigou’s ‘The theory of unemployment’ that will rightfully disagree with Mr Keynes’s mystifyingRead MoreEconomic Growth And Economic Development917 Words   |  4 Pagesnecessities. Inflation also pins down the growth further as the purchasing power of the current level of income is greatly reduced. As explained by the IS/LM model in the general theory by John Hicks, there are some situations in which there is no strong automatic mechanism that can move output and employment towards full employment levels (Hicks, 1904, n.p.). On the other side, some business cycle favors economic growth such as the expansion ally and boom phases. Here the country invests more asRead MoreThe Cost Of Real Money1690 Words   |  7 PagesHowever, with the LM curve moving to bring the economy to full employment, it seems impossible, in this case, to have sustained price rises (i.e. inflation) as the monetary side seems to close off the story entirely. One could subsequently argue that, as real wages (w/p) declined in the process, then workers would try to bid their money wages back up and thus regenerate the gap. However, recall that from the four-quadrant IS-LM diagram (our earlier Figure 4), when IS-LM centers on the full employment

Contributing Factors To Brian’s Continence †

Question: Discuss about the Contributing Factors To Brians Continence. Answer: Introduction The aim of the report is to respond to the case study of Mr. Brian experiencing incontinence. The contributing factors to the incontinence and the continence issues are discussed. To promote continence in Brian, health promotion involves the process of increasing his control over and improves the health. For this purpose two-research articles on one initiative or innovation program is critically analysed and based on the evidence obtained the report recommends how registered nurses can improve personal practice and the practice of others. Contributing factors to Brians continence problems Incontinence and the problems related to continence are the indicators of the bladder and bowel dysfunction. It is the most common problem occurring in the old age but is never normal. Thus, age is not causative e but contributing factor for incontinence, which is also found in case of Brian (Watt et al. 2014). He is 82 years old man and his age may be considered contributing factors for his continence problems. According to Johnson and Chang (2014), urinary and faecal incontinence in elderly patients is caused by strokes. From the patient history, it can be interpreted that the ischemic heart diseases and heart failure is the contributing factor of Brians faecal and urinary incontinence. Bladder dysfunction also results from the spinal disorders and osteoarthritis (Bedretdinova et al. 2016). In neurogenic bladder disorder there is damage to the nerve tissues that control the functioning of the bladder and the muscles involved in urination and bowel movement. Brians, spondylitis may be the other contributing factor (Panicker et al. 2015). The possible complications of spondylitis are the urinary and faecal continence (Bagnola et al. 2017). Not drinking enough water is the contributing factor for inflamed bladder wall. In case of Brian, it was seen he consumed more of wine and coffee and less of water. Drinking tea or coffee aggravates the bladder, which makes the incontinence a likely occurrence (Watt et al. 2014). Wine acts as a bladder stimulant (Johnson and Chang 2014). Faecal incontinence can be caused by constipation. Brian opens his bowel every 2-3 days. Thus, constipation may be the contributing factor for the continence issues observed in Brian. According to Loening?Baucke and Swidsinski (2015) faecal impaction causes difficult bowel moment and is the cause of the lower gastrointestinal tract obstruction. It is commonly found in elderly people with the constipation. The same may be the causative factor of Brian bowel problems and it was found from the case study that his abdominal examination showed lower left abdominal faecal masses. Since, Brian is undergoing treatment and medication for his ailments; the side effects of the medicines are having adverse effects on his bladder function. Brian is taking frusemide and spiractin, which is diuretic that increases urine volume. Amiodorone taken by him shows the beta blocker-like and calcium channel blocker-like actions and is known for urinary incontinence and constipation. Brian also takes tramadol which is the opioid that causes the reduce bladder contractions, constipation (Hussain and Gill 2016). Main continence issues The main urinary incontinence issues faced by Brian is the voiding of urine 9-12 times a day and 2-3 times overnight, he feels the urgency to void on most occasions. Sometimes Brian is not aware of leakage. He opens his bowel every 2-3 days and each bowel action is associated with straining and urgency. These issues can be categorised as urge continence in Brian. Urge continence refresh to the condition where the loss of urine is accompanied with the urgent need to urinate. This mainly occurs due to involuntary actions of the bladder after stroke (Johnson and Chang 2014). Brian condition can also be related to the overflow continence. It is the condition where the bladder never completely empties. It is due to this reason that Brian voids urine 3-4 times a day with small volume of urine loss. Brians functional incontinence that is unable to make up to the bathroom at night. It can be caused by the stroke complications and the neurological disorder that he is having. His mind cannot c arry or plan the trip to bathroom (Watt et al. 2014). Incontinence in elderly patients is difficult to treat, as they are reluctant to seek help due to embarrassment. Lack of awareness and effective communication with the health care providers is the other major cause of poor services (Watt et al. 2014). It can be concluded that Brian needs comprehensive health care plan because he is having chronic heart illness along with several comorbidities that result in interrelated complications. This demands the multifaceted approach. Thus, thenursing care plan must address the health issues using evidence-based practice. There is a need of joint approach and strategies for achieving the best outcome for Brian considering his age, coronary heart disease, spondylitis, incontinence, walking disability and overall weakness (De Gagne et al. 2015). Critical analysis research articles Article 1 In the article by De Gagne et al. (2015), the aim of the pilot study is to develop, implement and determine the effectiveness of the self-management program that is evidence based for community-dwelling older women (aged 55 years) with urinary incontinence in South Korea. The rational for conducting this study is evident from the succinct background provided by the author that demonstrates the through literature review being conducted (Schneider and Whitehead 2013). Thus, the objective of the paper is justified by the following objectives- Evaluation of the participants outcomes regards to the severity of the symptoms of incontinence Evaluation of the fidelity of the implemented programs Determine the participants response or satisfaction with the program Considering the research objectives the research topic was well justified although there was no hypothesis given. The study uses quantitative research paradigm and involves a one-group pre- post-test design. The instrument used for the data collection includes Sociodemographic questionnaire, knowledge scale and attitude scale, ICIQ-SF, Short Assessment Patient Satisfaction, Fidelity evaluation checklist. The research design is justified as the methodology is well described in terms of the participants and each of the instrument used for data collection is well explained. It constitutes the strength of the study as it eliminates the limitations by detailed description of participants, the inclusion and exclusion criteria that were found justified (LoBiondo-Wood and Haber 2017). The author had clearly mentioned the setting of the research as Sosa community (Korean rural community) but the lack of details on it is inconvenient for the readers. The research seems to be reliable. Obtaining ethics approval implies that the ethical issues were taken into considerations (Moralejo et al. 2017). In the study, 17 women participated and completed weekly 90-min group sessions for 5 weeks. The strength of intervention emerges from the teaching topics that are described in lucid language. However, drawback involves lack of details on the sampling method (LoBiondo-Wood et al. 2014). It includes self-management principles, behavioral and lifestyle factors on bladder health, effective communication, myths and facts about UI, and interactions with family and friends. The limitation of the study is the lack of sufficient description of data analysis. However. It was justified that the study used descriptive statistics and paired t-tests. The results are well documented by the author in form of tabulated charts with flawless presentation of the statistical values (p 0.05). The presentation of the results under individual subheadings gives the readers an in-depth insight of the study outcomes. Acknowledgement of the limitations adds to the strength of the study (Coughlan et al. 2007). The findings of the study showed an improved outcomes with the implementation of the self-management program of the urinary incontinence despite the scarce resources in the rural communities for urinary incontinence management and treatment. The findings are clearly stated by the author emphasising on the potential of this program and its widespread implementation in thenursing practice. This constitutes the strength of the study as the results were found to be statistically significant. However, there should have been more details on validity although the research appears reliable (Moralejo et al. 2017). Overall, it can be concluded from the quantitative study that increase in the self-management of the disease was found by an increase in the knowledge and positive attitudes toward it. Article 2 In the article by the Wilde et al. (2014), the aim is to discuss the the principles of self-management and their application in treating urinary and faecal incontinence. The objective of the paper justifies the research aims and appears relevance. The objective is to describe the patients benefits by applying the self-management techniques to address incontinence together with the case scenario. The author initially detailed the key elements of the self-management and highlights on the patient management of the physical, psychosocial, emotional, and functional aspects of health. The need of patient self-efficacy and participation in the collaborative process of care implies for the role of the nurse. The strength of the review paper is emphasis on the three processes that a patient requires for self-management of illness. It includes focussing on illness needs, making use of health care resources, and living with the chronic illness. The strength of the paper is the thorough literature review along with the support of relevant theories (Aveyard 2014). The author further elucidates the precondition for success for self-management of urinary or faecal incontinence. The treatment of any underlying etiologies is the precondition. The author highlights the six specific self-management behaviours that come into play during the self-management. It includes- Problem identification- which in this case is incontinence Seeking evidence-based knowledge- about the range of interventions Decision-making for resource use and interventions by the patent Development and implementation of the action plan- by the patient Self monitoring- of self management strategies Goal setting and attainment The strength of the paper further emerges from the explanation of each of six steps that acts as a framework for the nurses and the patients to promote the continence and self-efficacy in patients (Kisely and Kendall 2011). This can be considered advantage as it is not possible to deliver the supporting interventions without these strategies. Highlighting these options may be considered the merits of research. The limitation of the review paper comes from the use of case scenario from authors persona experience. It makes the results and conclusions unreliable. The author had not mentioned search strategy for other papers used in the study and there is no details on the validity and reliability of study (Aveyard 2014). The results of the paper showed that the patient Donna Spencer, 69, diagnosed with urinary incontinence, after six week of self-management found improvement in her condition. The patient modified the amount of the fluid intake (less tea, and coffee and more water), engaged in exercises for pelvic floor muscle, the rapid pelvic contraction exercises, underwent the bladder training (cognitive motivation), including modifying voiding intervals, reduced weight, and lastly constipation management (Wilde et al. 2014). The strength of the paper comes from the strategies for managing faecal or dual incontinence such as dietary modification use of toilet supplies to prevent leakage etc. This informs the readers on how to implement the strategies. Overall, this article provides evidence, even though of low quality on improvement of urinary incontinence by self-management using evidence based strategies. Recommendations and Conclusions Based on the above discussion it can be concluded that the registered nurses should not only focus on the Brians medical aspects but also on the psychosocial, functional, and behavioural aspects of wellbeing. While implementing the intervention the role of the nurses for patients like Brian in promoting the urinary incontinence should be to educate patients on self-management of urinary incontinence (De Gagne et al. 2015). The nurse must help Brian focus on illness, make use of social, spiritual and environmental support and help the patients to make practical lifestyle modifications. It may include decrease coffee consumption for Brian. The nurse can promote the six specific self-management behaviours for patients with urinary incontinence mentioned in the above article. The nurse must implement person-centered care and encourage other nurses to do the same. In this approach, the nurse demonstrates sensitivity to changes in care delivery.In personal practice, the nurse must increase engagement in Clinical, educational, managerial, audit and research activities (Hgglund et al. 2017). The rationale for this engagement is to implement the evidence-based practice. It will enhance their contribution to continence care. Evidence based practice helps the nurses feel more comfortable to asses patients with faecal and urinary incontinence. The nurses must collaborate with their colleagues who are Specialist Continence Physiotherapist (Hgglund and Olai 2016). Implementing this recommendation will help a nurse to influence the practice of other nurses as well. It can be concluded from the critical analysis that care plan for Brian must involve educating patient on self-management strategies for urinary incontinence. 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